By Colin Kaye
I Got Rhythm
Now then, I wonder if you can reel
off a list of Latin-American composers. If this seems a daunting task,
don’t let it bother you too much because I suspect that few people in
these parts can accomplish such a feat. Many concert-goers in Europe
would find themselves in a similar position although some could probably
dredge up the names of the Brazilian Villa-Lobos and possibly the
Mexican composer Carlos Chavez. There are dozens of others whose music
is frequently performed in Latin America but it has been slow to
penetrate the rest of the classical music world. But honestly, I don’t
Out of curiosity, I dug out my 2002
edition of the venerable Oxford Companion to Music. The entire
history of Latin-American music is summed up in three pages. In
contrast, Johannes Brahms gets four pages and Beethoven gets five.
Villa-Lobos, who wrote over a thousand works, gets just two paragraphs.
This less-than-subtle Eurocentric perspective is to me at least, deeply
disturbing. It may have been valid during the eighteenth and nineteenth
centuries but now the world is a different place.
Recently the conductor Gisele
Ben-Dor wrote in Symphony magazine, “Listen to some
Latin-American composers and you're going to find treasures. Keep
digging… I think we need to discover music that we didn't know before -
new music, even if it's old.”
Although there are some examples of
early Latin-American music, the twentieth century has seen an explosion
of composing activity. Many Latin-American composers write music which
is intensely rhythmic, drawing freely on elements of national folk
If you find yourself at a loose end
one day, try typing a few names into the YouTube search box, followed by
the word “composer”. For a start, you could try Leo Brouwer (Cuba),
Silvestre Revueltas or Rodolfo Halffter (Mexico), José Serebrier
(Uruguay) or Astor Piazzolla (Argentina). Oh yes, then there’s Oscar
Lorenzo Fernández, one of the older school of twentieth century
Brazilian composers. He eventually became a distinguished music teacher
and founded the Brazilian Conservatory of Music in which he served as
Fernández (1897-1948): Batuque. Symphony Orchestra of
Brazil cond. Roberto Minczuk (Duration: 04:18; Video: 720p HD)
Like the nineteenth century French
composer Hector Berlioz, Fernández first studied medicine, but was
eventually drawn to music and moved through the Rio de Janeiro musical
establishment, at first basing his music on European models. In 1924
Fernández won a composing competition with a piano trio entitled Trio
Brasileiro, a work infused with elements of Brazilian popular song
and dance. Most of his subsequent works, which include two symphonies,
five symphonic poems and a handful of concertos, are decisively
Brazilian in character and frequently quote folksongs.
In the early 1930s he wrote a
three-act opera, entitled Malazarte which is a colourful,
nationalistic work and thought to be the first successful Brazilian
opera of its type. As composers so often do, Fernández extracted a
three-movement suite from the opera, the last one of which, Batuque
has become especially popular. This lively percussion-driven piece is
based on an Afro-Brazilian folk dance. It uses pulsating and pounding
rhythms and seems to give a foretaste of the minimalist movement yet to
Ginastera (1916-1983): Danza final (Malambo) from “Estancia”.
Simon Bolivar Youth Orchestra of Venezuela cond. Gustavo Dudamel
(Duration: 05:09; Video: 480p)
Alberto Ginastera (jee-nah-STEHR-ah)
is considered the most powerful voice in Argentine classical music. He
studied at the conservatoire in Buenos Aires, and later with the
American composer Aaron Copland. Ginastera’s music can be challenging,
percussive, thrilling, thought-provoking and sometimes even downright
scary. If anything sums it up, the word is rhythm.
Much of Ginastera’s music draws on
Argentine folk themes or other elements of traditional music. He
greatly admired the Gaucho traditions and this is reflected in his 1942
one-act ballet Estancia (“The Ranch”). Ginastera turned the
ballet music into a delightful four-movement orchestral suite and if you
haven’t heard his music before, this is a great place to start. All the
hallmarks of his style are here: his passion for percussive sounds, his
sparkling angular melodies and of course his infectious sense of rhythm.
This is an absolute “must hear”.
The closing section (at 10:47) is thrilling, with cataclysmic percussion
and brilliantly articulated playing. The Simon Bolivar Orchestra of
Venezuela is the product of another music teacher, José Antonio Abreu,
who developed the music education programme known as El Sistema.
And by the way, the Gershwin song
ungrammatically entitled I Got Rhythm was published in 1930 and
was written in the surprisingly unusual key of D flat. I don’t know
whether you’ve noticed, but the second phrase is the same as the first,
Just a song at Twilight
Giacomo Puccini in 1900.
You can probably sing that line
even though the song was written before you were born and probably
before your parents were born. The song has an interesting tale behind
it. For a start, the words were not written at twilight but at four
o’clock in the morning. The insomniac writer was one Graham Clifton
Bingham, the son of a Bristol bookseller. He was a prolific writer with
1,650 song lyrics to his name. Just a song at Twilight is the
opening line of the chorus to a song called “Love’s Old Sweet Song”
which was published in 1884 with music by the Irish composer James Lynam
Molloy. At the time he worked as a private secretary to the Attorney
General having previously been a war correspondent for the London
Standard during the Franco-Prussian War.
The song became extremely popular
during the 1890s when the Gilbert and Sullivan operas were all the rage,
especially in London. In 1898 The Gondoliers was premiered at the Savoy
Theatre, running for over five hundred performances. It includes a song
entitled When a Merry Maiden Marries and the opening bars bear a
striking resemblance to Love’s Old Sweet Song. When Sir Arthur Sullivan
was accused of stealing part of James Molloy’s melody he denied it with
the classic response, “We had only eight notes between us”.
(1858-1924): Coro a boca cerrada (Humming Chorus). Schola
Cantorum Labronica, Lucca Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Andrea Colombini
(Duration: 03:18; Video 720p HD)
The opera Madame Butterfly has an
even more interesting background. The story is somewhat convoluted so I
shall try to keep it short. Please sit up and try and look as though
In 1887 a semi-autobiographical
French novel appeared entitled Madame Chrysanthčme written by
Pierre Loti, the pseudonym of Louis Marie-Julien Viaud who was a French
naval officer and novelist, known for his stories set in exotic places.
The novel told the story of a naval officer who was temporarily married
to a Japanese girl while he was stationed in Nagasaki. The plot was
based on the true-life diaries kept by the author. The novel came to
the attention of the French composer André Messager who used it as the
basis for an opera of the same name, first performed in Paris in 1893.
Meanwhile across the Atlantic, an
American lawyer and writer named John Luther Long published a short
story entitled Madame Butterfly. It was also based partly on the
Pierre Loti novel and on the recollections of his sister who had been to
Japan with her husband.
The American playwright and theatre
producer David Belasco adapted Long’s story as a one-act play entitled
Madame Butterfly: A Tragedy of Japan. After its first run in New
York in 1900 the play moved to London where by chance it was seen by the
Italian composer Puccini who decided that it would make a good opera and
arranged for an Italian libretto to be written. Four years later,
Puccini’s Madama Butterfly was premiered at La Scala in Milan.
It was a disaster, largely due to inadequate rehearsal time. The
composer revised the work five times and his final version of 1907 is
the one performed today. It has become one of the world’s most popular
operas: the tragic love affair and marriage of a naive young Japanese
girl to a thoughtless and callous American playboy Naval Officer.
The Humming Chorus is a wordless,
melancholy tune heard from off-stage at the end of Act 2 when the
Japanese girl Cio-Cio-San (Butterfly), her child and her servant Suzuki
are waiting at home one evening for the return of the American husband
whose ship is in the harbour. They are unaware of the devastating news
and terrible tragedy that is about to unfold.
Delius (1862-1934): Summer Night on the River. Orquestra
Clássica do Centro (Portugal) cond. David Wyn Lloyd (Duration: 06:37;
Video: 1080p HD)
Delius is one of those few composers whose musical
language you can usually recognise within seconds. In 1911 he composed
two short tone-poems for chamber orchestra, the first one being his more
well-known On Hearing the First Cuckoo in Spring.
The two pieces were written at the Delius house in
the French village of Grez, near Fontainebleau. The garden faced the
small River Loing where Delius spent many hours in contemplation. This
river was the inspiration the lilting music of Summer Night on the
River. Delius was gifted at creating an atmosphere in his music and
in this piece, the vague harmonies create an impressionistic picture of
mists settling over the river. You can almost feel the shifting waters,
the gentle rocking of small boats, the darkening of the skies and the
deepening of the colours.
We tend to think of a concerto as a
work for a lone soloist battling it out against a full orchestra and
during the late romantic period this was a fairly accurate if
In the seventeenth century the word
concerto was rather vague. It was originally used to describe
more-or-less anything for voices with instrumental accompaniment. Later
many such works were described as cantatas. During the baroque two
types of concerto emerged and they existed pretty well side by side.
One was the solo concerto for a single instrument and orchestra, and the
other was the so-called concerto grosso or “big concerto”. The main
feature of the big concerto was that it was conceived for two groups: a
small group of soloists known as the concertino - literally the “little
ensemble” - and the larger group often described as the ripieno. The
concertino or soloists’ group predictably contained more virtuosic music
than that of the ripieno.
Countless concerti grossi - to use
the correct Italian plural - were churned out by baroque composers but
the best-known were those of Corelli, Handel and Vivaldi. Bach’s
Brandenburg Concertos are mostly concerti grossi in all but name.
Eventually the concerto grosso went the way of most things and by the
1750s had simply fallen out of fashion. It gave way to the solo
concerto which so perfectly matched the romantic ideals of the century
Like so many historical forms, the
concerto grosso was revived in the twentieth century by composers such
as Igor Stravinsky, Ernest Bloch, Ralph Vaughan Williams and Heitor
Villa-Lobos who used various baroque ideas within a more modern musical
Arcangelo Corelli (1653-1713):
Concerto Grosso Op. 6, No.3 in C minor. ORT Ensemble dir.
Chiara Morandi (Duration: 12:08; Video 1080p HD)
Arcangelo Corelli was the first
important composer to use the description “concerto grosso” although the
format of a small group contrasted against a larger one had been around
for some years. He was a key figure in baroque music and one of the
most influential violinists of all time. His twelve concerti grossi
were published in Amsterdam in 1714 and their influence was enormous.
Although considered a fine
violinist, Corelli never ventured above the note D on the highest
string. By today’s standards that is conservative indeed. This C minor
concerto follows the conventional pattern of slow-fast-slow-fast-fast
and each movement becomes progressively longer. The concertino group
consists of just two violins and cello. There’s a typical declamatory
opening that leads into a quicker movement. The following slow movement
is rich in harmony although it must have sounded quite progressive at
the time. The vivace movement is vivacious indeed and so is the
scurrying finale but sadly some of the detail in the fast passages is
almost lost in the cavernous acoustic of the church.
George Frederic Handel
(1685-1759): Concerto Grosso in G Major, Op. 6, No. 1. The Colburn Young
Artists Academy Virtuosi Orchestra (Duration: 10:27; Video: 1080p HD)
Fast-forward twenty years and we
find something quite different. Handel wrote a couple of dozen concerti
grossi, nearly all of which are found in two sets: the Opus 3 and the
Opus 6. The earlier set was compiled in 1734 by a London publisher
simply by cobbling together various bits and pieces of Handel’s music
together without the composer’s involvement or even his permission. In
those days they could get away with that sort of thing. The Opus 6
collection consists of twelve concertos that Handel had written
specifically as a coherent set during 1739.
Like the Corelli, they’re scored
for a concertino group of two violins and cello and a string orchestra
with harpsichord continuo. The overall pattern is pretty similar to
that of Corelli’s as well but there the similarity ends. Handel brings
to the music a huge variety of musical styles and these concerti and are
generally considered to be amongst the finest examples of the genre.
Incidentally this is a charming
performance too from students at The Colburn Young Artists Academy in
Los Angeles. There’s some fine string playing, lovely ensemble contrast
and a careful observation of dynamics. There are a couple of moments
when the tempo feels slightly insecure but considering they are playing
without a conductor I certainly won’t hold that against them.
The first short movement starts
dramatically and leads into a lively fast movement. The third is slow
and dignified in which the violin soloists build phrases in imitation
with some lovely harmonies. The lively fourth movement sounds as though
it’s going to be a fugue but instead turns into a delightful episodic
movement with some jolly tunes and a few musical surprises too. The
dance-like final movement (at 08:22) uses a great deal of spirited
imitation in which at times the soloists echo phrases played by the full
orchestra, revealing Handel at his light-hearted best.
The Spanish Mozart
Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga.
The brilliant musical career of
composer Juan Crisóstomo Arriaga, dubbed the “Spanish Mozart” by later
musicians was tragically cut short. Rejoicing in the name of Juan
Crisóstomo Jacobo Antonio de Arriaga y Balzola, he was born in Bilbao
where his father and brother had strong connections with the Madrid
court. And it’s true that Arriaga had much in common with Mozart. For
a start, he was born on 27th January and the same date as
Mozart, though exactly fifty years later. They also shared the first
and second baptismal names.
Like Mozart, Arriaga played the
piano and violin and was first taught by his father. He proved to be a
child prodigy and “an excellent and intuitive musician” whose earliest
compositions included the divertimento Nada y mucho composed at the age
of eleven and a two-act opera Los Esclavos Felices written when he was
thirteen and first performed in Bilbao to great acclaim. And sadly,
like Mozart he was destined to die young.
When he was fifteen Arriaga went to
Paris to study and met Luigi Cherubini, who for a time was an examiner
at the Paris Conservatoire. He was admitted to study theory and
composition and while there composed three string quartets, some piano
pieces, choral music and his one symphony. Arriaga soon became a
teaching assistant at the Conservatoire and was well known for his
extraordinary talent. Cherubini referred to Arriaga’s fugue for eight
voices simply as “a masterpiece”.
What impressed all his teachers was
the young man’s ability to use musically sophisticated harmonies,
counterpoint, and related techniques without ever being taught them.
It’s possible that the intensity of his work at the Paris Conservatoire
may have taken a toll on his health. Just ten days before his twentieth
birthday, Arriaga died of a lung condition probably complicated by
physical and mental exhaustion.
Arriaga (1806-1826): Symphony in D Major. Symphony Orchestra of Galacia
cond. Jesús López Cobos (Duration: 28:58; Video: 1080p HD)
Arriaga's early death was not only
a loss to Spanish music but to European music as a whole. Along with
his string quartets, this symphony is Arriaga’s most important work. If
you didn’t know, you’d probably guess that it might be an early symphony
of Schubert, who was only nine years older than Arriaga.
The symphony is written in the
usual four movements but drifts between D major and D minor so
frequently that it’s not really in either key. The slow introduction
sounds almost Mozartian. But not for long. The ensuing fast section
seems to leave the eighteenth century far behind. There are some
imaginative and effective twists of harmony and between the lyrical
melodies, Arriaga creates some dramatic moments.
In the second movement (at 10:20)
the young composer writes lovely lyrical expansive melodies, one of
which sounds vaguely similar to the hymn All Things Bright and
Beautiful. The minuet is strikingly original with beautifully
transparent scoring in the waltz-like trio. It has a delightful and
original ending too.
At times, the final movement (at
23:05) seems to echo Rossini, whose opera The Barber of Seville had been
given its premiere when Arriaga was ten years old. But although there
are reflections of Schubert and Rossini in this extraordinary work, the
musical language is entirely Arriaga’s own. One can’t help wondering
what he would have brought to music had he not been taken away so early
in his life.
Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791): Symphony No 30 in D Major K202. Danish
National Chamber Orchestra cond. Adam Fischer (Duration: 18:45; Video:
Mozart was eighteen and the same
age as Arriaga when he wrote his Symphony in D in 1774. But there was a
difference, because Mozart already had a couple of dozen symphonies
behind him. We don’t know exactly how many because some early Mozart
symphonies are of doubtful authenticity. For example, Symphony No. 2
was almost certainly written by his father and Symphony No 3 was written
by Carl Friedrich Abel. But the young Mozart wasn’t cheating. The
eight-year-old Mozart had merely copied out Abel’s symphony for study
purposes when he visited London in 1764 and publishers later assumed it
was his own work.
Symphony No 30 is cast in the usual
four movements and kicks off with a confident fanfare-like figure for
the full orchestra, later making much use of dynamic contrast and
answering phrases. The delicate second movement (at 06:39) shows
Mozart’s increasingly sophisticated writing. The minuet and trio are
anything but dance-like and display a wealth of invention with many
answering phrases and sudden dynamic contrasts. The opening notes of
the playful and charming last movement look back briefly to the
beginning of the symphony while the closing bars of the work come as a
complete surprise. Even as a teenager, Mozart could be so
In the eighteenth century,
background music was an essential part of courtly life. Many composers
earned a bit of extra money by churning out selections of lightweight
pieces to serve as a musical back drop for formal dinners and social
chatter. Mozart, Haydn and Boccherini were not averse to writing for
such courtly occasions and even for private homes if the owners could
afford to hire a small orchestra.
The music usually took the form of
a suite of dances or a selection of five or six independent movements.
There were invariably many repeated sections to spin them out. They
were often called divertimentos, or divertimenti to use the more correct
Italian plural. The word comes from the verb devertire, meaning “to
amuse” and for practical reasons they were generally scored for a small
ensemble rather than a large orchestra.
Sometimes the selections were known
as serenades or cassations. Despite their different names, there was
little to distinguish one from another. Mozart’s Eine Kleine Nachtmusik
is one famous example, though contrary to popular belief the German
title actually means “a little serenade”.
During the nineteenth century the
divertimento faded in popularity because there were fewer courts, and
social changes were gradually moving musical performance from the
private court to the public concert hall. The divertimento was revived
in the twentieth century, not as a form of background music but as a
work for the concert performance.
(1894-1976): Divertimento. OSG Sinfonietta dir. José A. Trigueros
(Duration: 14.33; Video: 1080p HD)
The New England composer Walter
Piston was a Professor of Music at Harvard University, and in the 1950s
he wrote four books on technical aspects of music which are considered
classics in their fields: The Principles of Harmonic Analysis,
Counterpoint, Orchestration, and Harmony. Even today,
they’re still considered essential reading for advanced music students.
I have the books on orchestration and harmony on my shelves. At least,
I thought I had. When I went to look for them this morning they
had mysteriously disappeared.
During World War I Piston joined
the U.S. Navy as a band musician after rapidly teaching himself to play
saxophone. While he was there he discovered that wind instruments were
“just lying around” and as he later remarked “no one minded if you
picked them up and found out what they could do.” So Piston did what
anyone else would in the circumstances. He taught himself to play them
In later years Piston became a
prolific composer with eight symphonies to his name and a wealth of
other works. The Divertimento for Nine Instruments dates from 1946 and
it’s scored for string quintet and four woodwind instruments. I shall
leave you to guess what they are. It’s a delightful three-movement work
and neo-classical in style, using the characteristic “wrong-note”
harmonies favoured by Stravinsky and Milhaud. It sounds as though it
came from the same stable as Stravinsky’s Dumbarton Oaks concerto.
Incidentally, the neo-classical
style was a trend which emerged during the two World Wars, in which
composers sought to return to the principal qualities of eighteenth
century music: an emphasis on balance, clarity and economy of means.
Stravinsky modestly claimed to be the “inventor” of the genre but Sergei
Prokofiev’s First Symphony of 1917 was probably the first important
(1881-1945: Divertimento for String Orchestra. Hungarian State
Orchestra cond. János Ferencsik (Duration: 28:18; Video 480p)
This work has been described as
being neo-classical but perhaps the expression “neo-baroque” would more
appropriate. Throughout the work and especially in the last movement,
the composer borrows an idea from the baroque concerto grosso in
which a small group of soloists alternate with the full orchestra
creating a contrast in texture. Even so it’s the Hungarian qualities
that dominate the work.
Bartók and Liszt are considered
Hungary’s greatest composers. Bartók was born in the small town of
Nagyszentmiklós. Now, say it slowly after me: NAHJ-zent-mee-glohsh.
Try to get it right, because I might test you later. This incredible
work was the last that Bartók wrote before he hastily left Hungary and
immigrated to the United States during the outbreak of World War II. He
completed it in 1939 after fifteen days of busy composing while on
holiday in Switzerland.
The dance-like first movement opens
with energetic repeated chords played by the lower strings while a
characteristic gipsy-style melody appears in the violins. The music is
punctuated with irregular rhythms and unexpected turns of phrase. The
dark and ominous second movement is a strangely unsettling experience.
It contrasts rich harmonies with an unnerving passage that seems to push
tonality to its limits. The lively and playful last movement is more
neo-baroque in sound but its Hungarian heritage is unmistakable. It’s
also full of musical surprises.
On the 13th January 1910
the first public radio broadcast took place in the USA; a performance of
the operas Cavalleria Rusticana and Pagliacci from the
Metropolitan Opera House in New York City. It was an experiment and
publicity stunt arranged by Lee de Forest, the inventor of a device
called the Audion which was effectively the original radio valve and the
first method of electrical amplification that actually worked.
The opera performance starred the
Italian tenor Enrico Caruso. Few people actually heard the broadcast
because the only radio receivers were those at the De Forest Laboratory,
some hotels on Times Square and various locations in New York where
members of the press optimistically waited. There were also receivers
on ships in New York Harbour.
The following day, The New York
Times reported breathlessly that the sounds of the opera were “borne
by wireless Hertzian waves over the turbulent waters of the sea to
transcontinental and coastwise ships and over the mountainous peaks and
undulating valleys of the country.” Despite the poetic licence and
purple prose, the sound quality wasn’t particularly good because early
microphones had technical limitations and the antenna on the roof of the
opera house was evidently no more than a long fishing pole. Or so the
The two short operas Cavalleria
Rusticana and Pagliacci have been conjoined since 1893 when
they were paired for a performance – also at the Metropolitan - and
usually known as Cav and Pag. Both were conceived in the novel
verismo (realistic) style of opera which instead of using
mythological themes and tales of kings and queens, told stories about
ordinary people, usually enlivened with a bit of sex and violence.
(1863-1945): Intermezzo from “Cavalleria Rusticana”.
Evergreen Symphony Orchestra cond. Lim Kek-tjiang (Duration: 04:25;
Mascagni’s opera Cavalleria
Rusticana (“Rustic Chivalry”) caused one of the greatest sensations
in opera history. It came about because of a competition. In July 1888
a music publisher in Milan announced an opera competition open to all
young Italian composers whose work was unperformed. Pietro Mascagni (PYAY-troh
mah-SKAHN-yee) heard about it only a couple of months before the
closing date and hastily got to work using a libretto based on a story
set in a Sicilian village.
Cavalleria Rusticana was
probably the first opera in the verismo style and was premiered
in 1890 to an audience of the most authoritative music critics in the
country. With its rich melodies and powerful dramatic style it was an
enormous success, requiring the composer to take forty curtain calls.
He also won First Prize in the competition. It brought Mascagni
fantastic success both as a composer and conductor. None of his later
works ever managed to eclipse this opera which by the composer’s death
had received fourteen thousand performances in Italy alone.
The beautiful and moving
Intermezzo is one of most well-known instrumental pieces from the
opera. The Evergreen Symphony Orchestra is from Taiwan and part of the
Evergreen Group which also owns EVA Air. If you take an EVA flight,
you’ll probably hear recordings of this orchestra playing the background
music during boarding and landing.
Leoncavallo (1857-1919): Pagliacci. Film directed by Franco
Zeffirelli with Teresa Stratas, Plácido Domingo, Juan Pons, Alberto
Rinaldi, Orchestra and Choir of La Scala, Milan cond. Georges Prętre
(Duration: 1:11:04; Video: 360p)
Now here’s a real treat if you have
an hour to spare. In 1982, Franco Zeffirelli made a TV movie of the
opera shot in Milan’s La Scala opera house and on a sound stage. All
the actors, including Plácido Domingo and Teresa Stratas in the starring
roles, sang their own parts. The video quality isn’t so good by today’s
standards, but otherwise this is a compelling production with subtitles
Although Leoncavallo’s opera was
originally set in the late 1860s, Zeffirelli's production is updated to
sometime between the wars. Zeffirelli also made a TV movie of
Cavalleria Rusticana with much the same cast and many sequences shot
on location. You can find it on YouTube but there are no subtitles.
Before writing this opera, Ruggero
Leoncavallo was a relatively unknown Italian composer but he was
impressed with the enormous success of Cavalleria Rusticana and
hastily got to work on his own new opera also in the verismo
style. Pagliacci (Pah-lee-AH-chee) was performed in Milan in
1892 with immediate success. Although the composer produced numerous
operas throughout his career Pagliacci (“The Clowns”) is his only
work in today’s operatic repertoire. The plot was based on an incident
from his childhood; a true-life murder trial over which his father, who
was a judge, had presided in court.
The opera is a cleverly designed
story-within-a-story and recounts a tragedy that takes place in a
travelling comedy troupe. What starts as seemingly innocent clowning
turns jealousy to rage and then inevitably to a dramatic double murder.
The road to hell
One day in 1668, Samuel Pepys (he
of diary fame) went to Mr. Drumbleby’s shop in London and “did buy a
recorder which I do intend to learn to play on, the sound of it being of
all sounds in this world most pleasing to me.”
Today, few people would share Pepys’s enthusiasm. If the mention of the
word “recorder” brings to mind that ghostly hooting and squeaking of
schoolchildren blowing into plastic recorders, you’re probably not
alone. For years, the instrument has been used as an educational aid in
much of the western world but it’s invariably badly taught and badly
played. Thanks to years of musical abuse in schools it has acquired
rather a doubtful reputation. Of course, it was not always thus.
The recorder has a history spreading over eight centuries and its
ancestors can be traced back much further. Technically it’s known
rather unglamorously as “an internal duct flute” which is a flute with a
whistle mouthpiece. When you come to think about it, the name is rather
curious. It derives in a rather roundabout way from Middle French in
which the verb recordeur meant to learn by heart, to recite or to
The earliest known document in English mentioning “a pipe called the
recordour” dates from 1388. The instrument became very popular during
the Middle Ages and remained so during the Renaissance and the Baroque
despite the fact that the puritanical kill-joy Stephen Gosson claimed in
1579 that playing the recorder was the first step on the road to hell.
The instrument fell into disuse during the nineteenth century but was
revived in the twentieth, not only for educational use but to meet the
needs of musicians wanting to recreate authentic sounds of the Baroque.
Antonio Vivaldi (1678-1741): Recorder Concerto RV 443.
Maurice Steger (rec), Cappella Gabetta dir. Andrés Gabetta (Duration:
11.25; Video: 1080p HD)
There is a large sign in town advertising something, I have forgotten
exactly what, but it says “prepare to be amazed.” I’ve often wondered
how one prepares for amazement. If you have found the secret, prepare
to be amazed when you hear this performance. Maurice Steger is a Swiss
musician who has been described by the British newspaper The
Independent as “the world’s leading recorder player”.
Vivaldi of course is one of the most important Baroque composers and
best known for his set of violin concertos known as The Four Seasons.
Less well-known is the fact that he also wrote forty operas and several
hundred concertos. In 1739, Charles de Brosses wrote that Vivaldi can
compose a concerto faster than a copyist can produce the parts.
Sometimes it sounds like it. Igor Stravinsky once dryly remarked that
Vivaldi’s concertos are “the same concerto four hundred times”, which is
probably a bit unfair.
The concerto is cast in the usual three movements (fast-slow-fast) the
first of which is taken at a furious tempo and displays Steger’s
phenomenal technique. The sheer velocity of his playing is
extraordinary. Vivaldi makes a simple musical joke at the end of the
movement which even gets a laugh two hundred and eighty years on.
There’s a brilliant solo performance in the last movement too, with fine
string playing from the supporting ensemble.
Incidentally, the RV number refers to the work’s place in the
Ryom-Verzeichnis (Ryom Catalogue) a listing of Vivaldi’s works
complied in the 1980s by the Danish musicologist Peter Ryom.
Giuseppe Sammartini (1695-1750): Recorder Concerto in F.
Andreas Prittwitz (rec), Lookingback Baroque Orchestra (Duration:
12:48; Video: 1080p HD)
Giuseppe Sammartini was a Baroque Italian composer and oboist and was
also known as St Martini, San Martini, San Martino or just plain old
Martini. He hailed from Milan but spent most of his professional life
in London. Giuseppe had a younger brother named Giovanni who was also a
composer and oboist and people have been getting them mixed up ever
since. I recently read an article about Giuseppe which, rather
hilariously showed a portrait of his brother by mistake. To add to the
confusion there was also a Milanese sculptor called Giuseppe
Giuseppe Sammartini was an exceptionally skilled oboist who could also
play the flute and recorder. He was once described as “the greatest
oboist the world had ever known” so by any standards, he must have been
pretty good. His three-movement Recorder Concerto is a much more sedate
affair than the Vivaldi one and shows that Giuseppe Sammartini was
gradually moving away from the ideals of the Baroque.
I’ve just remembered that there are a couple of recorders in the house.
All this has inspired me to dust them off and get into practice. If you
happen to be walking along the soi outside, don’t be surprised to hear
the sounds of merry piping drifting over the garden wall.
Music from another time
At the watering
hole the other night, someone was saying that medieval music seems to
have a rather unworldly quality and a sense of purity. This perhaps is
probably an over-simplification but I know exactly what they mean. Much
of the music composed between 1400 and 1500 was invariably for voices
and intended for religious purposes. In those days music was simpler
harmonically than that of the nineteenth and twentieth century but
amazingly it still has the ability to speak to us over a historical
chasm of more than five hundred years.
The church took it
upon itself to record music in written form and without these
laboriously-copied manuscripts, we’d have little idea of what medieval
music actually sounded like. On reflection, it’s surprising that so
much medieval music has been preserved, though what survives today must
be a tiny proportion of what once existed.
But it was not only
the church that took on the responsibility of preserving musical
compositions. The so-called Old Hall Manuscript for example, is the
largest and most significant source of English sacred music of the late
medieval period and early renaissance. The manuscript contains 148
compositions written on red staves by different copyists, some possibly
by the composers themselves. The book is a large format and while some
pages are plain musical notation others are richly and colourfully
decorated. It’s thought that the work took about twenty years to
complete and contains sacred music by some of the best-known English
composers of the day.
Leonel Power (1370-1445): Beata
Ensemble Ligeriana dir. Katia Caré (Duration: 04:17; Video: 1090p HD)
One of them was
Leonel Power about whom we know precious little, except that he was
probably a native of Kent in South East England. In those days English
spelling was more chaotic than it is today and his first name has
appeared as Lionel, Lyonel, Leonellus and even sometimes Leonelle.
For a time Power
worked as a choral teacher at the household chapel of Thomas of
Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence. He then served until the end of his
days as choirmaster at the Christ Church Priory in Canterbury by which
time he was already a big name in English music.
lyrical and haunting motet Beata progenies is for three vocal
parts (performed here with two singers to a part) and was linked to the
immaculate conception of Mary which the church celebrated on 8th December.
Power uses remarkably rich and expressive harmonies to underline the
meaning of the text.
On this video,
there’s also a bonus performance: an anonymous motet entitled Ave
Regina Celorum which dates from sometime during the 14th
The details of its origin and author remain mysteriously unknown.
Josquin des Prez (c.1450-1521): Ave Maria...Virgo
Schola Antiqua of Chicago, dir. Michael Alan Anderson
(Duration: 05:34; Video: 720p HD)
Maria...Virgo Serenaa is considered Josquin’s
most famous motet and one of the most well-known choral works of the
time. In 1502 it appeared as the opening number in the first volume of
motets ever printed. It’s far removed from Leonel Power’s musical
language and the beginning, in which the voices imitate each other, was
revolutionary at the time.
Josquin des Prez
(usually known simply as Josquin) was a Franco-Flemish composer who
acquired a reputation as the greatest of his day. Even Martin Luther
wrote about his fame and some notable theorists considered that his
style represented musical perfection. Many anonymous compositions were
attributed to him in the hope of increasing their sales.
someone so famous his biography, especially his early years is somewhat
vague and we know pretty well nothing about him as an individual. He
lived during what must have been an exciting time, for it was a
transitional stage in music history and styles were changing rapidly.
This was partly due to the increasing mobility of composers and
musicians around Europe.
Maria...Virgo Serena was written at some
point between 1476 and 1497 when the composer was in service at the
North Italian court at Milan. In many ways this is a remarkable work
and reflects the ideals of the Italian Renaissance. Each musical phrase
corresponds to a line of text and Josquin uses a great deal of imitation
which you can hear clearly, especially near the beginning. Gradually
the work enters a realm of contrapuntal complexity and internal
aesthetic beauty that must have made it seem modern and exciting to
fifteenth century ears.
It’s a motet of
classic balance and it’s also a fine early example of using musical
techniques to bring expressiveness and colour to the text. Throughout
the work the voices interplay between each other and it’s not until the
final lines, sung rather like a hymn that they finally blend together as
one. The profound religious symbolism of this musical device would not
have been lost on contemporary listeners.
With Christmas just around the corner,
it occurred to me that I might tell you about some classical Christmas
music. But then I thought “No. Why should I?” To be perfectly honest, I
find the Christmas thing a bit of a bore and I’m jolly glad when the whole
tiresome business is over. So instead, I’ll tell you about two interesting
Japanese works that I discovered recently. And incidentally, it’s a
fortunate coincidence that 23rd December
just happens to be the birthday of the Japanese emperor.
Since the latter half of the nineteenth
century, Japanese composers have tended to look towards Western musical
culture as well as drawing on elements from Japanese traditional music.
Kômei Abe was one of the leading Japanese composers of the twentieth century
and his First Symphony of 1957 is a good introduction to Japanese
classical-music-in-the-Western-style, although it’s a curious mix of musical
The prolific Toshiro Mayuzumi composed
more than a hundred film scores and if you’d like an entertaining musical
experience, seek out his Concertino for Xylophone and Orchestra which
I believe is still available on YouTube. Kunihico Hashimoto was another
leading Japanese composer whose music reflects elements of late romanticism
and impressionism, as well as of the traditional music of Japan.
Oh yes, and I mustn’t forget Toru
Takemitsu, perhaps the most revered of the whole lot. He composed hundreds
of works that combined elements of Eastern and Western philosophy to create
his own unique sound landscape. More than anyone, Takemitsu put Japanese
music on the map.
Yűzô Toyama (b. 1931): Rhapsody for Orchestra.
Warsaw Philharmonic Orchestra cond. Eiji Oue (Duration: 09:54; Video: 1080p
Yűzô Toyama is a native of Tokyo who
studied with Kan-ichi Shimofusa, a pupil of the German composer Paul
Hindemith. The Rhapsody for Orchestra is probably the composer’s
best-known work. He is also known as a conductor and for years held the
post of chief conductor with the NHK Symphony Orchestra. In case you are
wondering, NHK stands for Nippon Hôsô Kyôkai - the Japan Broadcasting
Corporation. In 1960 Toyama conducted the orchestra on a world tour which
included several of his most popular works.
As a composer, his most important
musical influences were probably Béla Bartók and Dmitri Shostakovich. He is
fond of incorporating Japanese traditional music into his work, drawing on
folksongs and the classical Japanese dance-dramas of Kabuki theatre. Toyama
has written well over two hundred compositions and has received numerous
awards in Japan for his contributions to the nation’s musical life.
The Rhapsody for Orchestra dates
from 1960 and is based on Japanese folk songs in which traditional
instruments, including the kyoshigi (paired percussive wooden sticks)
are blended into a conventional Western orchestra. You’ll notice
distinctive Mikado-like moments from time to time. The work starts
with thunderous percussion so keep your fingers on the volume control.
This is a splendid performance and the
Polish musicians seem to enjoy playing the work. With excellent sound and
video, it looks superb in full screen mode provided that your download speed
and processor are fast enough.
Takashi Yoshimatsu (b. 1953): Cyberbird Concerto, Op. 59.
Hiromi Hara (sax), Shinpei Ooka (pno), Shohei Tachibana
(perc) Shobi Symphony Orchestra cond. Kon Suzuki (Duration: 26:21; Video
Yoshimatsu is also from Tokyo and like
his compatriot Toru Takemitsu, didn’t receive formal musical training until
adulthood. He left the faculty of technology of Keio University in 1972 and
became interested in jazz and progressive rock music, particularly through
Yoshimatsu first dabbled in serial
music but eventually became disenchanted with it and instead began to
compose in a free neo-romantic style with strong influences from jazz, rock
and Japanese traditional music. He’s already completed six symphonies,
twelve concertos, a number of sonatas and shorter pieces for various
ensembles. In contrast to his earlier compositions, much of his more recent
work uses relatively simple harmonic structures.
This curiously-named work is
technically a triple concerto and the ornithological reference reappears in
his Symphony No. 6 written in 2014, subtitled Birds and Angels.
Yoshimatsu described this concerto as alluding to “an imaginary bird in the
realm of electronic cyberspace.” It’s a concerto for saxophone in all but
name and uses a free atonal jazz idiom for the soloists against a
conventional symphony orchestra. It was composed in 1993 for Hiromi Hara
who performs it on this video. The three movements are entitled Bird in
Colours, Bird in Grief, and Bird in the Wind.
There’s some brilliant playing from
these talented young musicians with a lovely haunting second movement and a
joyous third movement with some fine brass writing and a thunderous ending.
If you are into eclectic modern jazz
this video, with its superb sound and video, will be right up your soi. As
Mr Spock in Star Trek might have said to Captain Kirk, “It’s
classical music Jim, but not as we know it.”
Shall we dance?
Maurice Ravel (right) and
American band-leader Paul Whiteman in 1928.
If you are over A Certain Age you may
recall that the original movie entitled Shall We Dance dates from
1937 and was one of the Fred Astaire and Ginger Rogers musicals. About
sixty years later in 1996 an award-winning movie of the same name, but with
a different story line appeared in Japan with the Japanese title Sharu wi
Dansu (honestly). The title referred in a curiously circular way to a
song – also called Shall we Dance from a well-known 1956 Hollywood
movie which was banned in Thailand. You probably know the one I mean. Then
to confuse the issue even more, in 2004 another American film called
Shall We Dance appeared - a remake not of the Astaire-Rogers movie, but
of the Japanese one.
Now I’ll be the first to admit that I’m
not much good at dancing. Not much good at all. To be more precise I am
completely useless. I’d have a better chance of parsing Sanskrit than doing
a tango. Strangely enough nobody knows exactly when people started to dance
though some archaeologists have traced the activity back to 3,000 BC.
Although early dance for ceremonial or religious purposes might have existed
without musical accompaniment, it’s difficult to imagine dance without
music. For the last couple of millennia music and dance have become
It wasn’t until the Renaissance that an
increasing amount of dance music was written down. Huge collections were
produced during the second half of the sixteenth century onwards, notably by
prolific composers like Michael Praetorius, Tielman Susato and Pierre
Phalčse. During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, dance music of
all forms flowed from the pens of many composers, including some
distinguished ones like Bach, Handel, and Georg Philipp Telemann who wrote
suites of dances, not for dancing but as courtly entertainment. In more
modern times, composers have often turned to dance music for ideas and
Maurice Ravel (1875-1937): La Valse.
Orchestra of Radio France cond. Myung-Whun Chung (Duration: 12.55; Video
This waltz is a fine example of Ravel’s
sophisticated use of musical ideas and brilliant orchestration. It’s
actually several waltz melodies combined and he called the work a
“choreographic poem for orchestra”. Ravel started writing it in 1919 and it
was first performed on 12 December 1920 in Paris. It was originally
intended to be a ballet but these days it’s usually performed as a
stand-alone concert piece.
Although there are unmistakable echoes
of the nineteenth century, this powerful work couldn’t be more removed from
the innocent waltz melodies of Johann Strauss that were so popular in Vienna
and later of course, throughout the western world. Ravel’s waltz sometimes
feels more like a surrealist nightmare in a haunted ballroom.
The piece begins quietly with ominous
rumbling of double basses and cellos but gradually the tempo and intensity
increase, fragments of tune appear and then swirling melodies emerge. You
can even get an unsettling sense of foreboding organic growth within the
music, as it hurls itself towards an almost terrifying but inevitable
Incidentally, eight years later in 1928
Ravel embarked on a two-month tour of America where he was able to explore
his interest in jazz. He met many other musicians and composers there
including Paul Whiteman – he of jazz orchestra fame. When Ravel returned to
France he started writing his brilliant piano concerto which borrowed many
ideas taken from jazz music.
(1881-1945): Dance Suite.
Symphony Orchestra cond. Ingo Metzmacher (Duration: 16:22; Video: 720p HD)
Hungarian tourist guides enjoy telling
visitors that Budapest was once made up of two separate towns. Buda was the
old aristocratic town on the hill overlooking the Danube while Pest lay on
the flat land on the opposite side of the river. The two towns were
officially merged in 1873 and with a flash of original thinking on the part
of the city council, the merged city was named Budapest.
In 1923, the council threw an enormous
party to celebrate the fiftieth anniversary of the merger. To bring a sense
of gravitas to the event, they staged a grand concert for which the
country’s leading composers were commissioned to contribute new works. One
of the composers was Béla Bartók, who wrote his Dance Suite for the
occasion. Although the composer wasn’t happy with the shoddy performance,
the work was later rapturously received during the following years when it
was played all over Europe. It probably did more for Bartók’s reputation
than all his previous works put together.
Bartók had been studying and recording
Hungarian folk music since 1905 and although the melodies in the Dance
Suite speak of Eastern Europe they are entirely Bartók’s own invention.
The work is full of typical Hungarian rhythms and along with his popular
Concerto for Orchestra, it makes an excellent and exciting introduction
to the music of this influential twentieth century composer.
Zoltán Kodály c. 1918 and
his state-of-the-art recording equipment.
One of the most
influential Hungarian composers of the early twentieth century was Zoltán
Kodály, who was born on 16th December.
Because of his interest in music education he became known in Hungary
primarily as an educator and he wrote several influential books on the
Oddly enough Zoltán
Kodály (zohl-TAHN koh-DAH-yee) is most closely associated with a
teaching aid he didn’t actually invent: the hand signs. The so-called
Kodály hand signs were devised in the mid-nineteenth century by an English
minister, John Curwen. Each hand position (or shape) represents a note of
the scale and after being adopted by Kodály the signs were extensively used
in elementary schools in both Europe and the USA a means of teaching
sight-singing. In many schools, they still are. The hand signs were used
in the 1977 movie Close Encounters of the Third Kind, but they didn’t
really have much to do with the plot and were perhaps merely included to add
a bit of gravitas to a rather implausible scene.
interested in children’s music education in 1925 when he happened to hear
some school kids singing in the street. He was horrified by their tuneless
squawking and drew the conclusion that music teaching in the schools was to
blame. He set about a campaign for better teachers, a better curriculum,
and more class-time devoted to music. His tireless work resulted in many
publications which outlined his approach to musical education and had a
world-wide impact. Kodály was also fascinated with Hungarian folksongs and
spent many years recording them, initially on phonograph cylinders.
Zoltán Kodály (1882-1967): Háry János Suite.
Frankfurt Radio Symphony Orchestra cond. Juraj Valčuha (Duration: 27:46;
Video: 720p HD)
Perhaps his devotion to
researching and writing about music education and his years collecting
folksongs gave him less time to compose because his output is fairly
modest. There are a couple of dozen chamber works and choral pieces, a
handful of orchestral works, and two operas, one of the which is the folk
opera Háry János.
The story is of a
veteran soldier in the Austrian army named Háry János who regularly sits in
the village inn spinning yarns to his long-suffering listeners with
fantastic tales of unlikely heroism, one of which was single-handedly
defeating Napoleon and his armies.
The suite, as you might
have gathered is a collection of material lifted out of the opera. It forms
a pleasing six-movement orchestral work. Both the opera and the suite begin
with an orchestral impression of a sneeze, symbolizing the Hungarian belief
that a sneeze before the telling of a story indicates that it’s going to be
the absolute truth. In the third movement, Kodály adds a bit of local
colour by using a cimbalom, a Hungarian dulcimer-like instrument played with
François-Adrien Boieldieu (1775-1834): Overture: The Caliph of Baghdad.
Symphonette Raanana Orchestra, cond. Shmuel Elbaz (Duration: 07:57; Video:
When I was a teenager
living on a stone-grey island far away, I used to play the cello. Every
Wednesday evening a group of us young musicians would clamber aboard the
local bus taking us on a twenty-mile journey to the rehearsal of the County
Orchestra. One of the conductor’s favourite overtures was The Caliph of
Baghdad, perhaps because it was relatively easy to play. We seemed to
perform it an awful lot. The work came to mind because 16th December
is also the birthday of its composer François Boieldieu (BWAL-dee-yuh)
who for a time was flatteringly known as “the French Mozart”.
As a teenager, François
composed his earliest works using words written by his father and this
brought him local success. The opera Le Calife de Bagdad was
composed when he was approaching twenty-five and first performed at the
classy Théâtre National de l’Opéra Comique in Paris. Incidentally,
the word “comique” does not translate as “comical” – it was a popular style
of opera in which arias were interspersed with spoken dialogue.
The opera was
Boieldieu’s first major triumph and the opera soon became tremendously
popular all over Europe. By operatic standards, the story is fairly
straightforward and revolves around the main character Isaoun who is the
eponymous Caliph. He adopts a disguise so he can roam freely among the
streets without being recognised, which of course, he eventually is.
At the time, there was
a fashion for operas on Oriental themes and the overture features prominent
“eastern” percussion. It’s thought that this opera may have influenced Carl
Maria von Weber, particularly his own Eastern-themed opera Abu Hassan.
If these things
interest you, the Théâtre National de l’Opéra Comique is still going
strong in Paris and you can find it in Place Boieldieu. Yes, named after
the composer. But don’t go there just yet in the hope of seeing a show –
it’s closed until January 2017 for renovations.
Anton Webern in 1911.
For connoisseurs of
exceptional wines, Opus One means only one thing. It’s the name of a
winery in California, founded in 1980 as a joint venture between two great
names in the wine trade: Robert Mondavi and Baron Philippe de Rothschild.
Yes, he of the legendary Château Mouton Rothschild. Today they produce a
single Bordeaux-style blend based on the Cabernet Sauvignon grapes grown in
Napa Valley. Other traditional grapes such as Cabernet Franc and Petit
Verdot are also used in the Bordeaux-style blend.
It’s a fabulous wine
and as you might expect, it doesn’t come cheap. Neither do I for that
matter. Six bottles of the much-lauded 2013 vintage will set you back just
over two thousand dollars and they’re tastefully wrapped in high-quality
tissue paper. The bottles are delivered in a pine wooden box which, if you
have the time and inclination could be later chopped up and made into a
The musical meaning of
the word “opus” is rather less interesting but I’ll tell you anyway. The
word comes from the Latin term meaning “work” or “labour” and is
traditionally added to the title of a composition (or a set of compositions)
to indicate the chronological position in the composer’s production.
From around 1800,
composers usually assigned an opus number to a work when it was published.
From about 1900 onwards, many composers gave their works opus numbers
whether they were published or not. Alban Berg initially gave his works
opus numbers and then stopped. Some composers never used them. Sergei
Prokofiev on the other hand optimistically gave an opus number to a
composition before he had even started writing it.
So when a composer
assigns Opus 1 to a work, it means that it’s either his first publication,
or the first work that he considers worthy of his name. Both the
compositions this week were written within a few years of each other by
students who were about the same age. One lived in Austria and the other in
Russia but they were both destined to become internationally-known
Anton Webern (1883-1945): Passacaglia Op 1.
West German Radio Symphony Orchestra cond. Jukka-Pekka Saraste (Duration:
10:42; Video: 1080p HD)
Webern was the composer
of some of the most tense and terse music ever created but that was some
years after he wrote this work in 1908. It’s a tonal piece with rich and
haunting harmonies which at one moment seems to languish in the closing
years of the nineteenth century and at another pushes the boundaries of
tonality - hinting of things to come.
(pah-sah-KAH-lee-a) is a musical form that dates back to
seventeenth-century Spain. It consisted of a short theme in the bass
overlaid with a series of continuous variations. It became a fairly
standard form which regained popularity among composers during the twentieth
century. Webern’s passacaglia has twenty three continuous variations which
are based on the hesitant pizzicato theme heard at the outset. This
finely-crafted work shows remarkable individuality and has a sense of
powerful drama within a framework of emotional complexity.
Because few of Webern’s
compositions achieved commercial success, this one has remained his most
performed and most readily understood work. He gave it the appellation Op 1,
and thus acknowledged that the Passacaglia was effectively his graduation
thesis. Significantly it was also Webern’s last piece for standard symphony
orchestra used in a conventional way.
Igor Stravinsky (1882-1971): Symphony No 1, Op 1.
Tbilisi Symphony Orchestra cond. Vakhtang Kakhidze (Duration: 46:08; Video:
If your experience of
Stravinsky is through works like The Firebird, The Rite of Spring
or Petrushka, this symphony might take you by surprise. This is a
genuine Op 1 in that it was the composer’s first publication, and amazingly
his first composition for orchestra. It was written between 1905 and 1907
when he was a student of Rimsky-Korsakov. Stravinsky structured the
symphony, which he dedicated to his teacher, on the well-established format
of four movements, although he made the Scherzo the second movement rather
than the third.
If you didn’t read the
label, you’d probably guess that it’s an early symphony by Tchaikovsky or
Glazunov and certainly shows strong influence of these composers. You might
also pick up echoes of Rimsky-Korsakov, Borodin and even Wagner. But even
though this wonderful symphony is steeped in the Russian romantic style you
might pick out the unmistakable voice of the later Stravinsky. For example,
at 16:48 there is a peek into the future as Stravinsky uses a melody that
later plays an important role in Petrushka. At the end of the third
movement there’s a tantalising glimpse of a work yet to come – The
Right, that’s that.
Now I can begin making my xylophone. I couldn’t manage two thousand bucks
for the six bottles of Opus One Cabernet Sauvignon, but I scraped
enough money together to buy the empty wooden box.