Gout is far more prevalent than you
would imagine. This week I am looking at the diet for those with gout,
and there are some famous sufferers out there, and in history. If you
have gout, then you join with Henry VIII, Benjamin Franklin and Thomas
Jefferson. It is indicated in around five percent of all cases of
arthritis and is present in around three to five percent of the
population, with males outnumbering women around nine to one.
Afro-Americans and many Asian races also have higher incidence than
Gout is in its simplest fashion, a recurrent form
of arthritis, and which generally affects just one joint – most commonly
the joint in the big toe. This arthritis, or inflammation, occurs in
association with high uric acid levels in the blood.
It is a condition that is still being researched,
and there is still no complete agreement on the preventive treatment for
The higher the concentration of serum uric acid (SUA),
the more likely you are to get an acute attack. The ‘normal’ range for
SUA is taken as less than 0.42 mmol/L (called ‘milli moles’ per liter),
but if your concentration is 0.54 mmol/L then you are five times more
likely to get gout.
Basically what happens is, that with high
concentrations of uric acid it crystallizes out into the joint, leaving
very sharp, needle-like crystals crunching inside the articular surface
of the joint. Very painful!
The typical gout sufferer is male in his 50’s,
overweight, with high blood pressure, carnivorous and consumes large
quantities of alcohol. Is that you? Or could it be almost be anyone in a
pub near you!
Gout affects almost four million men in the USA. It
has long been thought that purine-rich foods and a high protein intake
are risk factors, and sufferers are advised to avoid meats, seafood,
purine-rich vegetables, and animal protein. But this advice was based
more on the theory of how excess blood uric acid can occur, rather than
actual clinical studies.
One of the newer studies began on over 50,000 men
from health professions in 1986. Food-frequency questionnaires were sent
out at baseline, and again in 1990 and 1994. Weight, medications, and
medical conditions were recorded every two years.
The participants were assigned to groups according
to the total intake of meat, their consumption of seafood, purine-rich
vegetables, dairy products, low-fat dairy products, total protein, and
During the study, there were 730 new cases of gout
during the 12 years of follow-up. Most of them were aged 55 to 64.
When total meat consumption was analyzed, the risk
of acquiring gout was 1.41 times greater in the high meat eaters; in
other words, eating more meat was a risk factor for gout. Similarly,
high seafood eaters were 1.51 times as likely to develop gout. (Grass
should be fairly safe I believe!)
In contrast, gout was less common in those taking
more dairy products. Men who drank two glasses a day of skimmed milk, or
ate a serving of low-fat yogurt more than twice a week, halved their
risk of developing gout.
In this study at least, purine-rich vegetables, and
total protein had no influence on the chances of getting gout.
This large study confirmed that a diet high in meat
and seafood increases the likelihood that a susceptible person will
develop gout. It also showed that milk proteins increase the excretion
of uric acid in the urine.
So, to avoid developing gout, try to limit your
intake of meat (beef, pork, lamb, and offal) and seafood, while
increasing your intake of low-fat dairy products (skim milk, yogurt).
This is all very important, as the long term
outlook is not good for the unrepentant gout sufferer. Constant high
levels can lead to uric acid ‘stones’ being deposited in the kidneys
(producing renal problems) and even discharging lumps (called ‘tophi’)
around joints, on the forearms and even on the outer ears. Really a most
bleak and depressing future, and not one I’d like to have.
Note too, that it is low-fat milk that is being
proposed, as high fat milk introduces the cholesterol problems again! It
really is a fine line that we must all tread!