launched a relay satellite as part of a groundbreaking program to land a
probe on the far side of the moon this year. The China National Space
Administration said on its website that the satellite lofted into space
early Monday, May 21, aboard a Long March-4C rocket will facilitate
communication between controllers on Earth and the Chang’e 4 mission. (Cai
Yang/Xinhua via AP)
Beijing (AP) - China’s ambition to soft-land a
spacecraft on the far side of the moon later this year faces considerable
challenges, but if successful would propel the country’s space program to
the forefront of one of the most important areas of lunar exploration,
China hopes to be the first country to complete such a
landing. On Monday, it launched a relay satellite to facilitate
communication between controllers on Earth and the upcoming Chang’e 4
The moon’s far side is also known as the dark side
because it faces away from Earth and remains comparatively unknown.
Creating the ability to explore the far side of the
Moon is an impressive achievement, John M. Logsdon of George Washington
University’s Space Policy Institute said in an email.
“Spacefaring countries around the globe are focusing a
great deal of attention on lunar exploration, and this far side capability,
if it comes into being, will put China in a leading position with respect to
that objective,” Logsdon said.
However, getting the relay satellite into the proper
position will be tricky and marks only a first step in pulling off the
landing, he said.
“Doing things in space, especially at a far distance
from Earth, remains hard, so success is far from assured, Logsdon said.
A far side soft-landing would be a “world historical
first,” said Bernard Foing, head of the European Space Agency’s
International Lunar Exploration Working Group, which has collaborated with
the Chinese program.
That would offer a “deep science opportunity to study
the far side,” which has a different composition from sites on the near
side, where previous missions have landed, Foing said.
However, he too warned of the difficulties ahead,
saying it would be a “great challenge using the relay orbiter for control
Such a communications relay link is needed for
communication with a spacecraft on the far side because the moon’s rocky
bulk would otherwise block contact with Earth.
China previously landed its Jade Rabbit rover on the
moon and plans to land its Chang’e 5 probe there next year and have it
return to Earth with samples - the first time that would be done since 1976.
China conducted its first crewed space mission in 2003,
making it only the third country after Russia and the U.S. to do so, and has
put a pair of space stations into orbit.
Upcoming missions include the launch of the 20-ton core
module for the still orbiting Tiangong 2 station, along with specialized
components for a more-than 60-ton station that is due to come online in 2022
and a Mars rover planned for the mid 2020s.
Additionally, China has already obtained the
“technological basis” to put astronauts on the moon, the chief designer of
the manned space program, Zhou Jianping, told a conference last month.
“We have had in-depth discussions with many experts
about manned lunar exploration, and conducted research on key technologies
in recent years,” Zhou said.
Although China’s space program is largely military-run,
the Chang’e 4 mission underscores how it is a developing “an ambitious
civilian, science-based space effort alongside building up the country’s
national security space capabilities,” Logsdon said.
A number of Chinese commercial satellite launchers have
also sprung up in recent years on the model, if not the scale, of private
U.S. companies such as SpaceX and Blue Origin.
Last week, Beijing-based OneSpace Technologies became
the first private spaceflight company to send a rocket into space, launching
its relatively small 9-meter (30-foot) OS-X for a test flight that ended
with it falling back to Earth.